Constantes de entalpías de formación, energía libre de Gibbs y entropía

Datos de las constantes de entalpías de formación, energía libre de Gibbs y entropía de los compuestos más comunes

ΔH°f, ΔGf° y S° a 25 °C

SustanciaΔHf°ΔGf°
kJ/molkcal/molkJ/molkcal/molJ/mol·Kcal/mol·K
1-Buteno-0,1170,02171,30017,026305,60072,977
3-Etil-hexano-210,900-50,363----
Acetaldehído-166,400-39,736-133,700-31,928266,00063,521
Acetato de etilo(l)-481,990-115,099-337,650-80,631262,76062,747
Acetona(g)-216,690-51,746-153,550-36,668198,74047,459
Ácido acético-485,800-116,009-392,400-93,705159,80038,160
Ácido bórico-1.095,000-261,486-963,160-230,00389,58021,392
Ácido bromhídrico-36,230-8,652-53,476-12,770198,75647,463
Ácido carbónico-699,650-167,076-623,420-148,873190,60045,515
Ácido clorhídrico(g)-92,311-22,044-95,270-22,774186,96044,646
Ácido fluorhídrico(g)-271,357-64,800-273,451-65,300173,81941,508
Ácido fórmico-409,200-97,717-346,000-82,625129,00030,805
Ácido fosfórico-1.281,000-305,903-1.120,184-267,500110,59526,410
Ácido fosforoso-965,243-230,500----
Ácido nítrico-173,200-41,360-79,650-19,020155,60037,157
Ácido nitroso-207,000-49,432----
Ácido sulfhídrico-20,645-4,930-33,585-8,02031,8267,600
Ácido sulfúrico-811,320-193,743-745,268-177,97020,1014,800
Ácido sulfuroso-609,339-145,510-538,358-128,560232,41255,500
Ácido yodhídrico26,5086,3301,7170,410206,66249,351
Agua(g)-241,800-57,742-237,383-56,687188,87845,104
Agua(l)-289,840-69,214-228,786-54,63469,97516,710
Aluminio000028,3206,763
Amoníaco(g)-46,200-11,033-16,499-3,940192,50445,970
Amoníaco(l)-67,901-16,215----
Anilina108,41425,889----
Antimonio000045,69010,911
Arsénico000035,1508,394
Arsina66,00015,76168,93016,460222,78053,200
Azufre000031,8267,600
Bario000063,20015,092
Benceno(g)82,90019,797129,70030,972269,20064,285
Benceno(l)48,95011,689172,80041,265124,52029,735
Benzaldehído-88,830-21,213----
Berilio00009,5482,280
Bicarbonato de sodio-945,600-225,809-851,860-203,424102,90024,573
Bismuto000056,78413,560
Bisulfato de sodio-1.126,000-268,889----
Boro00005,8701,402
Bromo(g)30,7107,3343,1400,750245,20058,554
Bromo(l)0000152,36236,384
Bromuro de aluminio-511,000-122,027-505,444-120,700184,25544,000
Bromuro de amonio-271,064-64,730-175,461-41,900113,06527,000
Bromuro de bario-757,000-180,772-730,318-174,400148,66035,500
Bromuro de berilio-356,000-85,013-354,271-84,600109,29626,100
Bromuro de cadmio-316,000-75,461-293,719-70,140129,81631,000
Bromuro de calcio-683,000-163,100-663,600-158,468130,00031,044
Bromuro de litio-350,628-83,730-340,034-81,20069,09516,500
Bromuro de potasio-392,504-93,730-379,523-90,63096,52423,050
Bromuro de sodio-360,259-86,030-349,100-83,36586,20020,585
Bromuro plumboso-278,894-66,600-273,451-62,600161,64238,600
Cadmio000051,50012,298
Calcio000041,6679,950
Carbonato de amonio-941,860-224,916-687,186-164,100--
Carbonato de bario-1.236,000-295,157-1.137,600-271,659112,10026,769
Carbonato de cadmio-761,000-181,727-669,400-159,85392,50022,089
Carbonato de calcio-1.207,000-288,232-1.128,800-269,55792,90022,185
Carbonato de cobalto (II)-723,199-172,700-650,586-155,360--
Carbonato de magnesio-1.112,940-265,770-1.029,260-245,78765,69015,687
Carbonato de sodio-1,130-0,270-1.048,100-250,286139,00033,193
Carbono (diamante)002,8400,6782,4300,580
Carbono (grafito)00005,6901,359
Carburo de aluminio-209,000-49,909-121,441-29,000104,69025,000
Carburo de boro-71,000-16,955----
Carburo de calcio-60,000-14,328-65,000-15,52270,00016,716
Cianuro de hidrógeno130,54031,173120,93028,878112,46026,855
Cianuro de sodio-89,790-21,442-61,558-14,70091,29021,800
Cinc000041,6009,934
Clorato de potasio-391,200-93,419-289,910-69,231142,97034,141
Cloro0000223,14953,288
Cloroetano-105,000-25,074-60,000-14,328--
Cloroformo-131,800-31,474-66,720-15,933201,70048,166
Clorometano-81,923-19,563-57,400-13,707234,18055,922
Cloruro cúprico-205,900-49,169-161,700-38,614108,10025,814
Cloruro cuproso-134,700-32,166-118,800-28,36991,60021,874
Cloruro de aluminio-704,000-168,115-705,600-168,497109,30026,101
Cloruro de amonio-315,400-75,318-202,700-48,40594,24022,505
Cloruro de azufre-50,300-12,012----
Cloruro de bario-859,000-205,129-810,900-193,643126,00030,089
Cloruro de berilio-490,000-117,012-468,174-111,80085,84620,500
Cloruro de cadmio-391,000-93,371-342,590-81,810118,41028,276
Cloruro de calcio-795,645-190,000-748,100-178,646104,60024,978
Cloruro de cinc-415,100-99,126-369,400-88,213111,50026,626
Cloruro de magnesio-641,830-153,269-592,100-141,39389,63021,404
Cloruro de plata-127,178-30,370-109,899-26,24496,31523,000
Cloruro de potasio-437,100-104,379-408,800-97,62182,74719,760
Cloruro de sodio-411,120-98,175-384,000-91,69972,44617,300
Cloruro férrico-403,340-96,318-334,000-79,759142,30033,981
Cloruro ferroso-342,670-81,830-302,300-72,189117,90028,155
Cloruro mercúrico-230,319-55,000-176,717-42,200144,00034,387
Cloruro mercurioso-265,452-63,390-210,959-50,377192,63046,000
Cloruro plumboso-359,715-85,900-314,405-75,080136,09732,500
Cobre000033,1007,904
Cromo000023,8005,683
Dicromato de sodio-569,514-136,000-541,457-129,30058,62614,000
Dióxido de azufre(g)-296,900-70,900-300,452-71,748248,32559,300
Dióxido de carbono-393,520-93,973-394,715-94,258213,81951,060
Dióxido de manganeso-521,358-124,500-466,499-111,40053,18312,700
Dióxido de nitrógeno33,2087,93051,34012,260240,15957,350
Dióxido de silicio (cuarzo)-851,000-203,219-797,320-190,40041,87610,000
Dióxido de titanio00-853,434-203,80050,29312,010
Disulfuro de carbono(l)89,70021,42065,32715,600151,46636,170
Estaño000051,29012,248
Etano-84,667-20,218-32,915-7,860229,69054,850
Etanol(g)-235,100-56,142-168,500-40,238282,70067,509
Etanol(l)-277,690-66,312-174,760-41,733160,70038,375
Eteno (etileno)52,28312,48568,11016,265219,50052,417
Etilbenceno29,7907,114130,58031,183360,45086,075
Etino (acetileno)227,50054,327209,20049,957200,90047,975
Flúor0000202,84848,440
Fluoruro de aluminio-1.377,722-329,000-1.231,156-294,00096,31523,000
Fluoruro de amonio-464,000-110,803----
Fluoruro de bario-1.207,000-288,232-1.141,122-272,50096,73423,100
Fluoruro de berilio-1.027,000-245,248----
Fluoruro de cadmio-700,000-167,160-648,241-154,800113,06527,000
Fluoruro de potasio-568,600-135,782-538,900-128,68966,55015,892
Fluoruro de sodio-569,000-135,877-545,100-130,17058,62614,000
Formaldehído-108,570-25,927-110,000-26,268219,00052,297
Fosfato de aluminio-1.734,000-414,079----
Fósforo000022,8005,445
Helio0000126,03930,098
Hidracina(l)50,63012,090149,43035,684121,21028,945
Hidrógeno0000130,68731,208
Hidróxido de amonio-366,500-87,520-264,028-63,050180,06743,000
Hidróxido de bario-945,000-225,666-857,203-204,70095,05922,700
Hidróxido de berilio-903,000-215,636-817,900-195,31550,21011,990
Hidróxido de cadmio-561,000-133,967-470,938-112,46095,47722,800
Hidróxido de calcio-986,090-235,478-897,529-214,33083,40019,916
Hidróxido de litio-487,856-116,500-443,920-106,00850,20011,988
Hidróxido de magnesio-924,660-220,809-833,750-199,10063,10015,068
Hidróxido de potasio-425,126-101,520-378,900-90,48178,91018,844
Hidróxido de sodio-425,963-101,720-379,500-90,62564,46015,393
Hidróxido férrico-824,250-196,831-695,142-166,00096,31523,000
Hidróxido ferroso-568,190-135,684-483,550-115,47279,50018,985
Hidróxido niqueloso-538,060-128,489-453,130-108,20779,50018,985
Hierro000027,0706,464
Litio000028,0006,686
Magnesio000032,4007,737
Manganeso000031,7607,584
Mercurio000076,98018,383
Metanal(g)-117,000-27,940-109,900-26,244218,95052,285
Metano(g)-74,874-17,880-50,796-12,130186,31544,492
Metanol(g)-201,170-48,039-162,060-38,700237,85656,800
Metanol(l)-283,861-57,040-166,457-39,750126,88430,300
Monóxido de carbono-110,530-26,395-137,270-32,780197,73547,219
Monóxido de nitrógeno(g)90,37421,58186,60020,680210,83350,347
m-Xileno17,2404,117118,87028,386357,69085,416
n-Butano(g)-124,730-29,786-15,720-3,754310,30274,100
n-Butano(l)-147,600-35,247-15,000-3,582231,00055,163
Neón0000146,21434,916
n-Heptano-187,000-44,656----
n-Hexano-167,200-39,92735,0008,358--
Níquel000030,1307,195
Nitrato de amonio-366,100-87,425-184,000-43,939151,00036,059
Nitrato de bario-992,000-236,890-795,394-189,940213,98751,100
Nitrato de cadmio-456,000-108,893-255,444-61,000198,07447,300
Nitrato de litio-482,831-115,300-389,866-93,100105,52825,200
Nitrato de plata-129,880-31,015-33,410-7,978140,92033,652
Nitrato de potasio-492,710-117,659-393,130-93,879132,93031,744
Nitrato de sodio-466,680-111,443-499,680-119,324116,41527,800
Nitrito de sodio-359,000-85,729----
Nitrógeno0000191,66745,770
Nitruro de aluminio-241,625-57,700-211,055-50,40020,9385,000
Nitruro de bario-362,000-86,446----
Nitruro de berilio-568,258-135,700-512,563-122,400--
Nitruro de boro-254,000-60,655----
n-Propilbenceno7,8241,868----
Oro000047,70011,391
Óxido cúprico-155,000-37,014-127,190-30,37343,51010,390
Óxido cúprico-155,230-37,069-127,190-30,37343,51010,390
Óxido cuproso-166,690-39,806-146,360-34,951100,83024,078
Óxido cuproso-166,690-39,806-146,360-34,951100,83024,078
Óxido de aluminio-1.676,000-400,229-1.576,500-376,46851,00012,179
Óxido de bario-554,000-132,295-525,100-125,39470,42016,816
Óxido de berilio-609,000-145,429-579,100-138,28913,7703,288
Óxido de cadmio-258,000-61,610-225,060-53,74454,81013,089
Óxido de calcio-636,516-152,000-604,170-144,27639,7509,492
Óxido de cinc-348,000-83,102-318,200-75,98650,16011,978
Óxido de cobalto II-239,531-57,200-213,568-51,00043,97010,500
Óxido de cromo III-1.129,397-269,700-1.047,739-250,20081,24019,400
Óxido de litio-595,800-142,277----
Óxido de magnesio-601,830-143,717-569,000-135,87726,9006,424
Óxido de manganeso II-385,200-91,986-362,900-86,66159,70014,256
Óxido de manganeso IV-519,600-124,080-464,800-110,99453,14012,690
Óxido de silicio IV-859,000-205,129-86,500-20,65641,5009,910
Óxido de sodio-415,890-99,315-376,560-89,92372,80017,385
Óxido férrico-822,864-196,500-741,625-177,10087,40020,871
Óxido ferroso-266,750-63,700-244,556-58,40060,75014,507
Óxido mercúrico-90,710-21,662-58,530-13,97771,97017,186
Óxido niquélico-244,350-58,351-216,310-51,65538,5809,213
Óxido niqueloso-239,700-57,240-211,700-50,55437,9909,072
Óxido nitroso81,55019,474103,60024,740219,99052,534
Óxido plúmbico-276,300-65,980-219,000-52,29776,57018,285
Óxido plumboso-219,200-52,345-189,200-45,18167,55016,131
Oxígeno0000205,20549,003
o-Xileno19,0004,537122,09029,155352,75084,237
Ozono142,00033,910142,70034,077238,90057,049
Pentacloruro de fósforo(g)-381,072-89,526-305,000-72,834364,60087,066
Perclorato de potasio-433,460-103,510-304,180-72,638151,04036,068
Permanganato de potasio-813,000-194,144-170,600-40,739171,85941,040
Peróxido de bario-634,000-151,399-568,677-135,80065,74515,700
Peróxido de hidrógeno(g)-136,300-32,548-120,400-28,752232,950975,503
Peróxido de hidrógeno(l)-206,500-49,312-28,780-6,873109,71526,200
Plata000042,73910,206
Platino000041,8409,991
Plomo000064,79015,472
Potasio000064,23815,340
Propano-103,850-24,799-23,470-5,605269,90064,452
Propanol (alcohol n-propílico)-255,000-60,894-170,620-40,744194,56046,461
Propeno20,4104,87462,84015,006266,60063,664
p-Xileno17,9504,286121,13028,926352,42084,158
Silicato de calcio-1.584,000-378,259----
Silicio000018,8104,492
Sodio000051,25612,240
Sulfato cúprico-751,400-179,434-662,479-158,200113,48427,100
Sulfato de aluminio-3.441,000-821,711-3.096,859-739,530239,53157,200
Sulfato de amonio-1.179,300-281,617-900,586-215,060--
Sulfato de bario-1.473,000-351,752-1.353,000-323,096132,00031,522
Sulfato de cadmio-933,000-222,800-820,200-195,864137,24032,773
Sulfato de calcio-1.432,700-342,129-1.321,800-315,646106,70025,480
Sulfato de cinc-978,500-233,666-871,600-208,138124,70029,778
Sulfato de sodio-1.385,678-330,900-1.267,923-302,780149,62335,730
Sulfato mercúrico-58,160-13,889-48,830-11,66177,82018,583
Sulfato mercurioso-743,760-177,610-626,420-149,589200,83847,960
Sulfato plumboso-918,400-219,314-811,240-193,724147,28035,170
Sulfito de sodio-1.090,000-260,292-1.005,611-240,140--
Sulfuro cúprico-48,576-11,600-48,995-11,70066,58315,900
Sulfuro cuproso-79,564-19,000-86,265-20,600121,02228,900
Sulfuro de bario-460,000-109,848-437,605-104,50078,30818,700
Sulfuro de bismuto (III)-143,216-34,200-140,704-33,600200,58647,900
Sulfuro de cadmio-162,000-38,686-141,000-33,67171,00016,955
Sulfuro de carbono(g)234,30055,951184,09043,961210,45050,255
Sulfuro de cinc-202,700-48,405-198,000-47,28257,70013,779
Sulfuro de sodio-373,000-89,072-362,647-86,60097,15223,200
Sulfuro ferroso-95,060-22,700-100,400-23,97660,29014,397
Sulfuro plumboso-94,310-22,521-92,680-22,13291,21021,781
Tetracloruro de carbono(g)-106,690-25,478-64,000-15,283309,40073,885
Tetracloruro de carbono(l)-128,400-30,662-62,600-14,949214,39051,196
Titanio000030,3187,240
Tolueno(g)50,00011,94093,08222,228--
Tolueno(l)12,0002,866113,80027,175220,96052,765
Tribromuro de boro-240,000-57,312-219,430-52,400229,06254,700
Tricloruro de fósforo(g)-287,000-68,536-267,800-63,951311,78074,453
Trióxido de azufre(g)-395,180-94,369-369,305-88,190256,20061,181
Trióxido de boro-1.273,000-303,992-1.184,100-282,76354,02012,900
Trisulfuro de boro-252,000-60,178-223,199-53,30057,37013,700
Yodo(g)62,25014,86519,3004,609260,60062,231
Yodo(s)0000116,23527,757
Yoduro cuproso-67,839-16,200-69,598-16,62096,73423,100
Yoduro de aluminio-314,000-74,983-314,070-75,000201,00548,000
Yoduro de amonio-201,000-47,999----
Yoduro de arsenioso-58,000-13,850-44,556-10,640205,19349,000
Yoduro de bario-605,000-144,474----
Yoduro de berilio-189,000-45,133-213,568-51,000131,91031,500
Yoduro de cadmio-203,000-48,476-201,005-48,000168,34240,200
Yoduro de potasio-328,000-78,326-323,000-77,132106,39025,406
Yoduro de sodio-288,000-68,774-282,400-67,43798,50023,522

Bibliografía:

Héctor Fernández Serventi. "Química general e inorgánica". Losada S. A., Buenos Aires.

Robert C. Smoot y Jack Price. "Química, Un curso moderno". Compañía Editorial Continental S. A., México.

Autor: Ricardo Santiago Netto. Argentina.

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